College Materials and Publishing

(xfI;lIxlDF[G rluXs-jfxfC)

;]jfFX cfbfIaf/cfbfIdf;]!

sG rlFlcX ofSyLI xfI;lIxlDF[G rluXs-jfxfC vXdfM s[;LS nX. sG ;fKkSjfxfC of ;LDxfC yStXaf of cfafi] cXufKF[ nfulFS cXuKdff s[;LS sF sGglG zSk]jfCV sLef ;fKkGV of ;fDglu[Daf ofd-aSsX cXuK rXs-dfF[ nful clIb[D gfs-df o[s-of jfC FX. v[Nn[ nful k]nl zSwlS cfIufCg- ;fKdf kldfaXi-. ofDdX sLef ;fKkSjfC/;fKnf_dLGw] PDFcX oXuS (download) rXs-dfF[ nful oXuS nSsX k]s-dfcfI nlDaL ;]u[ v[Gc]ufI cXd[Tt[cfI oXuS rXu[.

o[xfI ;[Mdf dLGwLD

(Yehang Sema Mundhum)

yfdlI

kXxlglt-                                                                  

1V gl;LD
2V clS;f vfDa]s- kXi-df dLGwLD
3V d[GpfD ofKdln[G gfjfrclt-
  3V1V d[GpfD ofKdl ;fDdfOIV oLSkfV vfKkL gL jfxlnfD kXi-df dLGwLD
  3V2V m[bfIafxfCF[G tF]nldX sLaXi- kXi-df dLGwLD
  3V3V d[GpfD ofKdl kXi-df j]C dLGwLD
4V gfjfrclt-n[G c]ufI
  5V1V tul sLx]s-;lIaf d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G xlIdG
  5V2V d[GpfD ofKdlxfC dlIzfqF[G sLaXi- gL d[aXMF[F d[a]af v[bfC
  5V3V dfIwlDn[G sLaXi-
5V sLhLt-plI
6V o[s-;fK

1V gl;LD

sG glIo[D;fKF[ “o[xfI ;[Mdf dLGwLD” yfdlIiX cfSs]af kfg-xfCV clI;LDjfxfCV v[bfCxfC  sXt-tLcfI ;fKtLIn kfTtf FX . sF sG s[F[Ss] cfglC kfIe]C_yIe]Caf tLDefS;f gL m[hlSsLD m[bfIaf/dfF[ dLSdLFf d[TplIaf v[bfCV k[DdLSv[bfC gL kfg-xfC sG ;fKnfcX ;fKtLIifI jfCcf .  ofDdX o[xfI ;[Mdf dLGwLDn[G rLSdLSs] kXws-slG tfu[Ff glIjfCmLd[Nn[ sG clS;fblI vfDa]s-n[G sLaXi- rXuLcfI c]ufI s[F[S yS;f_kL;fV tfaLblI ;fInfIV sXs-df_mfIhfIn[G sLaXi- rXuL;LFLcfI sLgLDdX d[GpfD ofKdln[G gfjfrclt-kf v[bfC of k[DdLSvfbfC cl;lS jfC . d[GpfD ofKdln[G gfjfrclt- kXs-v[cfI s[bLSkf of tLSdfNn[ y]dfM rXs-dfV cfSs]FlS ;lbfCkFlS rXs-dfV ofDdX gXMFlSsfI xlIdfV d[df;lIilNn[ cfSs] rXs-dfV cfSs]FlS d]s-vlD rXs-df vLGplC ;fSylDdlaf dLDwLDV rXs-ylD s[alaf gL cfKnLIV ;gfFLI gL nlIwX rXs-dfF[ nful   ylS;lu]s-kf nfDnXMaf jo[ s[FCaf v[bfC jfC . ofDdX v[G d[GpfD ofKdlF[ ylS;lu]s-kf nfDnXMafclG ;fjf o[xfI (Originator of Mundhum - Supermind) d[d[TtL . x[Ss]FlS ;fjf o[xfIn[G ;LgLclI gL k[DdLSv[bfCxfCclG o[xfI ;[Mdf dLGwLD d[d[TtLC s[FCaf kfg-glG cfafIe]CnfD vX;LIifI jfCcf FX .


        sKdX sfSgL tul tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdfn[ g[Tpl dfI_clIPI;faf ;lu[Ff ofmLg-blI dfI gL kXFXs-dl_oDefdl dfI nfDaf clS;f vfDa]s-n[G sLaXi- (creation) rXuL . v[G c]ufI gfDVnfMV v];]dlSkfxfCF[G dLhXs-nLI rXuL . ofDdX v[G c]ufI yS;f_kL;fF[G sLaXi- rXuL . ofDdX s[F[Sn[G sLgLDdX d[GpfD ofKdln[G gfjfrclt- rXuL .


        sKdX s[jfCaf s[F[Sn[G sLaXi- rXuL;LFLcfI c]ufIaf kfg-gfI sG glIofD;fK x[KdX ;fKtLIifI jfCcf FX . cLg-pXg- d[GpfD ofKdlxfC cfSs]FlS xlIi[cfI jo[ ofDdX v[G o[DdX v[G dgfxfC y]df rfMdf yLIdf d[hX s[FCaf kfg-gfI sG glIofD;fK x[KdX vXMdf ;LSt[T . ofDdfX d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G dlIzfq (clan, family name)V dfIwlDV yXaX_nlIwX d[aXs-v[af kfg-xfC ;fKtLIifI jfCcf .

2V clS;fblI vfDa]s- kXi-df dLGwLD

c}GgfI oFlS tfbl tfbl tul tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdfF[ clS;f vfDa]s-n[G dLhXs-nLI (creation) rXuLcfI jo[ s[FCaf cfglC cfafi] ;fKdLGwLD;lufI cfPXM;LD gL cfNnXwfFlS x[Ss]af g;fg- cfhXuLDdfI cfjfC . sF sG vfOD v[bfCxfC ;fKk];fKkX d[IPXM;fI tfSy[af/oLdfxfCF[ rSdLFf k[DdLFf d[TplIn d[bfMFLcfI jfC . clS;fblI vfDa]s-n[G dLhXs-nLI kXs-v[af dLGwLDdlG ;fDhlS gL m[hlSsLD m[bfIdf/afxfC oFlS x[Ss] gl;fD gL clI;LDjfxfC d[uTtL . ofDdX vLGplC dLFfnfD sG dLhXs-nLIF[ kfg-xfC v[Ddf gL xLC;lIdf ;LSt[T . 

    cfNn s[jfCaf clS;f vfDa]s- cfSs]FlS kXs-v[cfI jo[e[Nn[ sfSgL tul sKdX y];fI xXk-t[V cfDefC nlulK kl;fI vfdfS gL dInlI_v[InlI (xInlI)FS jo[ . sG clS;f vfDa]s-n[G dLhXs-nLI dX rfJ of jfFSFS jfC s[FCaf g;fg- d[hXuL . v[ToX “rfJ ;fDbfI clhLDaLI clwfKxfC dfIn[ clwLDu[;LcfI clwLLDmg-plI clwfKmg-plIgfI clS;f g[;lI vfDa]s- g[;lI” nCFlS m[bfIaf gfU afxfbLU dfb[G (nXjfU gfDklIV nfIu[T ;LSvlD)n[ d[TtL . vLg[C kfk-df sXt-tLaf kfg-glG sG clS;fF[ dX y]df;fI xXk- cfDefC rfJFS jfC ofDdX tfu[Ff glIjfCmLd[Nn[ vfDbfSjfn[ sLu] rXuLaf x[Ss] ;fDdfO]s-slNn[ (sacred/lawn grass) oXi- moL of rXuLcfI v[G;fDbfI s[F[S vfDV nLIV clSnlI;f ;lI;f ju[Ff rluXs-jfxfCF[ sG clS;f vfDa]s-n[G dLhXs-nLI rXuL FX . ofDdX sG clS;f vfDa]s-n[G gL;l tfSmfaf jfC gL sNn[ sLaLIiX rfJFS jfC s[FCaf g;fg- d[[hXuL . 

    x[Ss]FlS jfFSV oIPIV tfFi-blI tfI;fSV ;lTtfd] nLIn[i-V tfaLblI ;lInfi-V sXs-df_mfIhfI ju[FfxfCF[ sLaXi- rXuL . v[G c]ufI ;lSr]g- yfaf khLSrLSkf ;lIglofd-afxfC (micro-organisms) gL koDoDaf ;SdfM;fxfC of yS;f_kL;fxfCF[ gfjfrclt- rXuL . kLxfCF[ nLDdX  gfjfrclt-tlG sfSgL tul sLdfSnf dfSvlof kL(bulbul)n[ kXs-v[clFf g;fg- d[hXuL. sLef sLef tLDefS;fxfCF[ d[aft-tL sG clS;f vfDa]s-slG rXuL;LFL sF sKdX ;fFlS v[DbLdf d[gl;LNn[ kXFXs-dl_oDefdl dfIn[ rclt-tfIdfgL (tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf) tLD;[cfI v[G kfg-glG r[SvL . rclt-tfId[Nn[ yX nfDafc] ylS;lu]s-kf x[KdX vfDaLTtLqSgf (मुस्टे चरो) rXuLcfI sKdX clS;f x[KdX kfIPLb];L . ofDdX sLef sLef ofKdlxfCF[ d[aft-tL ylS;lu]s-kf x[KdX ;fDbfIv[jf (डाँफे)_nlIbfIv[jf (मुनाल) kL;l rclt-tfId[Nn[ sG clS;f x[KdX kfIPLb];L .

    sG clS;f vfDa]s-n[G dLhXs-nLI kXs-v[hLF[cfI c]ufI tfu[Ff glIjfCmLd[Nn[ gfDdlG g[TplCF[ sLaXi- rXuLcfI jo[;l . v[G g[Tpl gfDn[ dlIilG rLIjfgfD gL o[TpfgfD d[d[TtL;l . vLGplC gfDdlG clS;f vfDa]s-n[ mlFlFl ;Lhf d[g-g]af tfSsGbL jo[afNn[ ;fFlS cfaL gL v[S kXs-v[e[Nn[ gfD nTylSFS d[hXuL . x[Ss]FlS v[Gc]ufI nfMafF[ sLaXi- d[hXuL . sF nfMafefI oFlS tLDa[GglG clGalqSkf (fire-fly, glow-worm) nCFlS d[d[TtL . v[De[Nn[ gfD x[Ss] ;[Gbls-sX nfMafF[ cXt-tl klFL nCFlS v[bfC cl;lS jfC .  v[G c]ufI oFlS v];]CdlSkfxfCF[ sLaXi- d[hXuL . sG clS;f x[KdX ;[Gbls-_n[Gbls- kXi-df x]s-tL . x[Ss]FlS gfD_nfs-df gL jxlT yfMdfcfI tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdfNn[ xLS jfC s[FCaf g;fg- jfC .  
 

3V d[GpfD ofKdlF[G gfjfrclt-

cfNn clS;fblI vfDa]s-n[G gfjfrclt- rXuL;LFLcfI tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdfF[ sLgLD  gfjfrclt-tlG d[GpfD ofKdlefI g;fg- d[hXs- nX . tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIn[ y]cfI d[GpfD ofKdlF[ sLgLDdX gfjfrclt- rXuLe[Nn[ sG clS;f vfDa]s-dX khLSrLSkf ;lIglofd-af gL koDoDaf yS;f_kL;f ofDdX ;lIaLI ;lI;fxfC s[F[Sn[G sLaXi- rXuL . sG clS;fclG cXd[Kd[Nn[ ;fFlS rlcLi-dLSkfV rlgLafV v[D;lIdfV glIjfC rld-df s[F[S s[jfCaf rXuLcfIFS tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIn[G sLglIjfC ;lufI ;gfFLI xXk-t[ gL ;lSd[Ghlg[GV glIjfCd[bfg[Ge[Nn[ d[GpfD ofKdlF[ gfjfrclt- rXuL s[FCaf tfhlaf kfIoLd[t- x[KdX vXMd[b[T . sG d[GpfD ofKdln[G gfjfrclt- s[aXi-af v[bfC of k[DdLSv[bfCclG oFlS ;LjfI nLDdX vXMd[b[T . v[G ;LjfI nLDdX ofSyLIafF[cfI v[bfC jfC .


3V1V d[GpfD ofKdl ;fDdfOIV oLSkfV vfKkL gL jfxlnfD kXi-df dLGwLD:


dfI tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdfn[ d[GpfD ofKdlclG gfjfrclt- rXs-dfF[ nful g[Tpl dfI_clIPI;faf/dfV ;lu[Ff ofmLg-blI dfI gL kXFXs-dl_oDefdl dfI sKdX clS;f vfDa]s-dX kfIPL;l . vLGplC dfI_clIPI;faf;lF[ d[GpfD ofKdlB ofDalTpfC gL d[GpLdfF[ gfjfrclt-tlG ylS;lu]s-kfcX ;fDdfOIn[ rXuL;l . sF v[KdX ;fi-uL ;SdfM s]MKdf d[GpLStLG;l ofDdX vLGplC tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf d[TtL;l . v[G c]ufI gl;lu]s-kfcX oLSkfn[ ofDalTpfC gL d[GpLdfF[G gfjfrclt- rXuL;l . v[De[Nn[GgfI ;fi-uL ;SdfM s]MKdf of ;SdfM s[ofs-kf dgf rXs-df d[GpLStLG;l . x[Ss]FlS d[GpfD ofKdlF[G gfjfrclt- d[DaXs-v[G . sF;fI ofDdX vLGplC tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIilG ;]jf rXuL;fI ;Lhf gL xfIjfdLcl gfs-t[;l . vLGplC ofDdfI (ofDdX) ;ldlSnf_kSdlSnf (देवानिगालो/निगालो) F[ vfKkLV ;fDbfIv[jf (डाँफे)_nlIbfIv[jf (मुनाल) kLF[ xlV jxlT gL sLbLnfD ofDalTpfC gL d[GpLdf;lF[ gfjfrclt- rXuL;l . v[Nn[ rXuLNn[ ofKdlxfC cLS;lIilNn[ sLwSnfD vfKkL ng-b[af FX . v[KdX ;fi-uL ;SdfM s]MKd[Nn[ nfM;f . vLGplC ofd-aSslG ;aTkfV gX;fIuXaf kXs-v[ . vLGplC dfI_clIPI;faf;lF[ v[G g[T_dgf;l ;fSdfq d[TtL;lB dgfF[ sL;fI xlIdGglG cfKmfn-n[;fI cfhLgl d[DaXi- ofDdX tLSdf of cfTtlpfI x[Ss]af xlGwXs-n[ ;fIu[G (विनाश) kXi- nCFlS ;fSdfq klFL y]cfIe[Nn[ vLGplC cfSv[G tD;lG rXuL;l d[GpfD ofKdlclG cfSv[G cld[NnLIaf rluXs-jf of kfIPG/glIPG(धातु)nfD rXs-df sF d[NnLI d[g-g]af rluXs-jf of kfIPGnfD rXs-d[KdX ;aTkf kXs-v[ . sF v[De[Nn[ vLGplC ;fSdfq klFL;lNn[ dgf ;[O ofDdfI mc]t-tlNn[ c[KtLcfI ;[k-tL . v[G c]ufI d[GpfD ofKdlxfC s[bLSkf kXi-ifI df;lI nX s[FCaf g;fg- d[uTtL . ofI;l vLGplC ofSnfu[G ;LxfI s[F[V tLTtLblI tLDofI s[F[cfI ;fjf o[xfI kfIe]C k];l . v[ToX vLGplC k]nl kfg-bf oLI;lIV clIhfI oLI;lI . “xlD;L;LblIg] dLSt[ nfDeLblI rKdf dLSt[Nn[ ofI;fblI sLGw]   kXs-v[;l ofDdX ;fjf o[xfI kfIe]CnfD jfblIblI nfDbX x[KdX ;ld]FlI o[d]FlIu[gf dfIu[FfV gfxfIdfV rd[G d[TplIifI d[GpfD ofKdl ‘kLFf’ kXs-v[ ” nCFlS m[bfIaf gfU afxfbLU dfb[G (nXjfU gfDklIV nfIu[T ;LSvlD)n[ r[SvL .

 

3V2V m[bfIafxfCF[G tF]nldX sLaXi- kXi-df dLGwLD:


    ;lu[Ff ofmLg-blI dfI gL kXFXs-dl_oDefdl dfI;ln[ ofDalTpf gL d[GpLdf;lF[G gfjfrclt- rXuL;l  . sF vLGplC nLDdX cSs]af r[ofd-eX t[O v[G rclt- rXuLaf dgf;lclG ;Le]_nfKm] d[DaXs-v[GV ;ffFlS tLSdf/ofDbLSdf s[aXi-a[Nn[ (s[bLSkf) y]df rXs-dfV ;fM ;fjfg-plId[Nn[ cfSs] rXs-dfV dgf df;lIilNn[ cfSv] rXs-df y]df ylD jfC . vLGplC y]df;fI d[Gn[;LG . x[Ss]bfIaf r[ofd-eXxfC d[aXs-v[Nn[ vLGplC dfI_clIPI;faf;l rclt-tfIdfclG ofDdX tLD;[cfI sG vfDa]s-kf dgf;l ;Le]_nfKm] d[DaXs-v[G v[Nn[ y]df rXs-df xfIjfdLcl gfs-t[cfalCF[;l nCFlS ;]jf/k]nl tXg-bL;l . rclt-tfIdfn[ v[G dfI_clIPI;faf;lclG dfIu[gfV gfxfIdfV rd[G rXs-dfaXi- nCFlS d[TplIifI ofDdX clS;f vfDa]s-x[KdXc] kfIPLb];L . ylS;lu]s-kf x[KdX rclt-tfId[Nn[ cfKm] yXc] ;M]uLcfI m[bfIaf vfDa]s-dX kfIPLb];L . vLg[C xlD ;fDdfIV dfIu[gfV n]t-pfD/tfDeLIaf ;fDdfI ju[Ff d[PMoL . sF ofI;l vLg[C gfxfIdfV tI;lI vdf d[;LSg[G . vLGplC dfI_clIPI;faf;l rclt-tfIdf tLD;[cfI ofDdX k]nl tXg-bL;l . v[G rclt-tfIdfn[ ;fjfu[G ;fDaf d[Kdfgfaf m[bfIaf sG clS;f vfDa]s-x[KdX ofDdX kfIPLb];L . v[G ;fjfu[G ;fDafn[ s[F[S rXs-df ;LStL . tI;lIV gfxfIdfV xlD ;fDdfIV tfDeLIdfIV ;XPfV dfI;]jfV ju[Ff s[F[S vMdf ;LStL . sF ofI;l ;XPf s[aXi-af/df;lIaf ;fDxfC d[aXMF[F d[a] . vLg[C vMdf/ dLGwLSdf d[;LSg[G . x[Ss] kXs-v[afNn[ ofDdX rclt-tfId[Nn[ sLgLDdX o[af/o[df sG vfDa]s-dX x[KdX kfIPLb];L . v[G o[af/dfF[ ofd-aSslG cfDefC cfTtlG ;oI/xlDdX d[GpLdfclG sL;f ;fjfg- klFLNn[ df;lIafV nfwfnfD m[GwXs- s[aXi-af x[Ss]FS vMdf ;LStL;l .


3V3V d[GpfD ofKdl kXi-df j]C dLGwLD: 


t]d[G nfh]Caf v[bfC x[KdX dfIn[ ;xls-sfOk-kf(yellow) vfDn[ d[GpfD ofKdln[G gfjfrclt- rXuL .  dfIn[ ofDalTpfC gL d[GpLdfF[ gfjfrclt- rXuL;LFLcfI gfDdX oLSvL . v[De[Nn[ cG t[OcfI v[G dgf;l s[F[S m[TnfMGbL of ;fIu[G rXuL . x[Ss] kXs-v[afNn[ dfIilNn[ ofDdX sXt-rXCF[G sLaXi- rXuL . cGglG dgf gl;LcfI rlIhlI nCF[ y]cfIe[Nn[ dgfF[ cGglG tLSv] klFLefI . sF tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIn[ cGglG oFlS vLDblI (punishment) d[TtLcfI ofKdlxfCF[ sS s[uLaf (sS sLMdf nfwf x[Ss]) d[hXuL .

 

4V gfjfrclt-n[G c]ufI

cfNn sG clS;fblI vfDa]s-V v];]dlSkfV gfDV nfMV tFMIblI tfI;fSV ;fTtfd] nLIn[i-V oIPIV jfFi-V tfaLblI ;lInfi-V khLSrLSkf ;lIglofd-afxfC (micro-organisms) gL koDoDaf ;SdfM;fxfCV d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[cfI s[F[Ss] tfu[Ff glIjfCmLd[Nn[ gfjfrclt- rXuL;LFL . ofDdX sG vfDa]s-n[G s[F[S sLaXi- rXs-d[KdX tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIn[ ;lS;DV ;ls-ofDV dG;LK sLblD sLblD kXs-v[hLF[cfI jo[ gL sKdX y]df;fI rfxf xXk-t[ . sF sG clS;l vfDa]s-n[G x]s-;lIcX d[GpfD ofKdlxfC cfNnXaf x[Ss] d[xXk-t[ . v[G d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G cfNnXaf x[Ss] g[xl_glIjfCV ;lSylDV ;fDoXV s[glk-kf/df d[xXk-t[ . ofDdX cfNn x[Ss] yXaX gL nlIwX d[aXs-v[af d[GpfD ofKdlxfC d[Gjo[g[G .
 

5V1V tul sLx]s-;lIaf d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G xlIdGB


    v[De[Nn[ sG clS;f vfDa]s-n[G x]s-;lIiX d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[ t]t-mLI d[hfSvLGV dlbLKdfcfI d[n[;LGV xlDdfI xXk-t[V mLSsL ;lufI d[oLI;lIefI v[bfC cl;ls- ;fKdLGwLD;lufI vXMd[b[T nX . v[De[Nn[ v[G d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[ r[;]C kSjfxfC sLF]MTnfc] rfdfgf ylD jo[ . ofDdX cfNnXaf x[Ss] ofi-PG (agriculture) d[GhXuLG rfdf yLIdfF[ nful ylS t[GgL j]C tfSsGgL d[a]s-sfI d[jo[ . sF kfIe]C_yfIe]Caf of_m[bfIafxfCF[ d[aft-tLaf kfg-gX cLg-pXg- tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIn[ d[GpfD ofKdlxfC t]t-mLI klFL gL cfSs]FlSsfI rfIdf v[GgfI xLC;lIifI jo[ . tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIn[ v[G ofKdlxfC rfdf yLIdfF[ nful ofi-PG rXs-dfaXi- d[TtLF  kuLsLhfF[G ofFlMDaf (sL;]) klFLcfI jo[ . sF ylS;lu]s-kf x[KdX j[TpfCF[G sL;] klFLaf jo[clFf s[FCaf g;fg- d[hXuL . v[G ofKdlxfC j[TpfCF[G sL;]clG d[;[M;L . sF v[G j[TpfCF[G r[;]C/sLbfKdfM d[wXs-tfG . ofDdX d[GpfD ofKdlxfC tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIgL ;]jf d[hXuL . v[G dfIn[ d[GpfD ofKdlxfC j[TpfCF[G sLbfKdfMcfI yXs-t[ klFL . sG kfg-gX cfSs]af v[bfC v[K;LcfI jfCB tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf dfIn[ kgXgXMaf xfIjfdLcl d[GpLdfclG klFLcfI v[G ofi-PG x[KdX d[GpLdfF[G klTgLNn[ v[G j[TpfCxfC jfFSvLcfI j[TpfCF[G sLbfKdfM yXs-t[ . x[Ss]FlS dfSslV dfIbs-V r[;]C kSjfxfC ofi-PG rXs-df d[x]s-tL . gi[s-_gi[s- cfKm] dl nk-dfcfI d[xLC;lI . v[G dlclG sLef sLef dgfF[ d[TtLB dlhfSnLInfD (दर्शनढङ्गा/दल्सिङ ढुगा) dl v[SvL of cl;]Caf ;lInfD dl nMTtLaf FX . 

5V2V d[GpfD ofKdlxfC dlIzfqF[G sLaXi- gL d[aXMF[F d[a]af v[bfCB


    x[Ss]FlS d[GpfD ofKdlxfC cfKm] ofi-PG rXs-dfV t]t- rfIdfV rfdf yLIdf d[xLC;lIaf jo[ . ofKdlxfC gi[s- gi[s- ofFlS yXaXblDaf d[aXs-v[ . vLglC cfafi] nXs-mfu[G ;lIPlD rXs-dfcfI oLIdf d[x]s-;lI . cfSs]FlS vLglC cfafi] kfIe]C d[hXuLcfI oLIdf d[x]s-;lI. sF v[KdX cSs]af kfg- tf v[G d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G cfSs]FlS j]Cj]C ;LjfIV dlIzfqV ;oI d[aXs-v[ . ofDdX sG clS;f vfDa]s-dX cfSs]FlS d[GpfD ofKdlxfC d[aXMF d[a] y]cfIe[Nn[ tfu[Ff glIjfCmLd[Nn[ d[GpLdf gL o[DalTpfCF[G gfjfrclt- rXuLcfI jo[ . vLGplC nfD ;fc]xfC kXi-df ;LS . sF cfNnXaf ylD x[KdX x[Ss] jo[uq vLGplC ;fc]xfC d]s-vlD rXs-df d[IPXMg[G . v[G kfg-gX cSs]af kfg-gfI v[K;LcfI jfCB v[De[Nn[ cfNnX x[Ss] ylD xXk-t[ . v[Nn[ rXuLNn[ cfafi] ;oI ;lufI ;f_c]dfM;lF[ d]s-vlD rXs-df vXM;LclFf . ofDdX d[GpfD ofKdlxfC dlIzfqclG ;fMd[GpfCxfCnfD (descedants) d[aXs-v[af FX . sLef sLef dgfxfCF[ d[aft-tL rclt-tfIdf(tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdf)n[ gfjfrclt- rXuLaf d[GpfD ofKdlF[ ofFlS ;f_c]dfMxfC d[jo[ . v[G ;f_c]dfMxfC j]Cj]C n[K;fIB sLef gfDu[GV sLef gfDwfV sLef yfIu[TV nfIu[T n[K;fIcX yfIa[G d[GplG d[aXs-v[gL d[;[GbLcfI d[a]. cfDefC vLGplC v[ToXCc] d]s-vlD rXuLcfI oLI;l . x[Ss]FlSs] d[GpfD ofKdl kXMdf_mXMdf x]s-;lI . ofDdX cLg-pXg- ofKdlxfC cfTtlG t[GgL d[oLI . v[G t[Gn[ dlIilG d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G dlIzfqxfC dlIjfg-plI nX . y]cfIe[Nn[ sL;lIglt-dfV cfafi] dlIzfq ;[DdfV cfKm] gL j]C sL;lIglt-df ;LFLaf rXs-dfF[ nful sSs]FlS t[Gn[ dlIilG dgfF[G dlIzfq rXuLaf FX . ylS g[TplC sL;lIxfCB_ rXal;- yLD s[oLIaf dgfclG rXal;[V t[Ge] s[oLIafclG t[Ge]V cXs-vfqafX s[oLIaf cXs-vfqaXV dLb[G nfh]C s[oLIaf dLb[DafV k[g] nfh]C s[oLIaf k[g]af ju[Ff nCFlS sLef sLef kfIe]Caf tLDefS;fCxfCF[ d[aft-tL .

 
    sF sLef sLef kfIe]Caf tLDefS;f d[aft-tLB d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G dlIzfqclG cLg-pXg- v[G rclt- rXuLaf ofDalTpf gL d[GpLdf;lF[ oFlS ;fM_c]xfC ;fjfg-plIifI jo[ . v[De[Nn[ vLGplC ;fM_c]xfC dlIjfg-plIaf gL v[G ;fM_c]xfC dLFLD xlDnfD d[;[GbL j]Cj]C t[GgX d[oLI;lI . v[G d[;[GbL d[;[MF[af ;fM_c]xfCF[cfI ofDdX vLglC ;fM_c]xfC dlIjfg-plI . x[Ss]FlS cLg-pXg- dlIjfg-plIaf gL v[G d[;[GbLcfI nLKklG cfNnXaf ofKdlxfCF[G dlIzfq d[aXs-v[efI g;fg- d[hXuL FX . 


5V3V dfIwlDn[G sLaXi-B    
       ofSyLI;fafxfCF[ tI;lI d[hXuL . sG tI;lIilG g[TplC kFlSsX d[xfC;lGgfI d[jfCB ;l tI;lI gL xlI tI;lI . tI;lIilG ofSyLI;fxfCF[ nTylS o[s-kf ylD Ff] . sG ylDdlG xlIi[af ofKdlgL ;f]FlS cLg-pf]g- df;lIaf sfKy[af_oLdfxfCcfI sfCcl jfC . tI;lIn[ kLI;LTnfclG YYsLefC kldfV t[GblI kldfV ylSxLD kf]i-dfV nPT kf]i-dfYY . tI;lI tfSdfclG nTylS ofSyLI ;oI of ;oIxfCF[ kfIe]C;fafV ;i-hLDef]xfCnfD sLefC d[Pf];LcfI d[PMoLaf dLGwLSdf ylD Ff] . sGglG d[PMoL vLglC cfKnLI (welfare) nlIwf] gL xfIxfI d[aXi- nX . sG tI;lIilG nf]o[Daf (customary) rf]s-ylDdf] ;LD;l o[Gx[Kdf] d[[hLT sF sLef o[Ddf] ifo[[GgfI d[hf]uL . sG tI;lIilG ylS;]MSkf tIa]wlSsf] rf]s-df ;LSt[T . ofSyLI;fafxfCF[ y]cfI tI;lI d[hXuLe[Nn[ cLg-pXg- sG d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G x]s-;lI x[KdX yXaX d[aXs-v[Nn[ ;Le]_nfKm]/xfIxfI (Well-being) d[GnCF[G . ofSyLI;fafxfCFS d[G sG clS;f vfDa]s-dX s[jfCaf s[F[S ;LjfIxfCF[ cfafi] cfafi] ;fSylD ;fDoXx[KdX dgf s[bLSkf kXi-ilNn[V df;lIilNn[V ;fjfg-plIilNn[ dfIwlD d[PMo FX . v[De[Nn[ d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G rclt- d[aXs-v[cfI c]ufI xfIxfI d[GnCF[Ga[Nn[ ofDdX kXFXs-dl_oDefdl dfIn[ rclt-tfIdfgL tLD;[cfI sG r[ofd-eXF[ nful xfIjfdLcl gfs-t[ . rclt-tfId[Nn[ vLg[C sG vfDa]s-dX kfIPLb];L gL dgfxfC d[df;lIilNn[ ;l tI;lI rXs-dfaXi- ofDdX v[G ;oIF[G xlIi[af kf;lIafbfIxfC xlI tI;lI rXs-dfaXi- . x[Ss]FlS xlDn[G dLFLD kf;lIafbfIafclG gfxfIdf rXs-dfaXi- nCFlS rclt-tfId[Nn[ xfIjfdLcl klFL s[FCaf g;fg- d[hXuL . sG gfxfIdfF[ kLI;LTnfclG YylSn[ yfu]s- mf]Mi-dfY y]cfIe[Nn[ sG ylDn[ tlIblI gfx[G gL dlS;DdfnfD d[;[GbLgL x[SsfOI v[G dgfclG y[;fS (pride) gL clIwfI (prestige, dignity) sLbI xlIdf d[;LS .  sG gfxfIdfclG xlDafM of xlD ;oIn[ tLD_kf;lIafbfIafF[ yfu]s- mf]i-df of vLg[C gf];fIuf]afV gLbjf kf]i-dfF[ nful d[hf]uL . sG ylDdlG ylS;lu]s-kf tIa] ;LD;lcf] rf]s-df ;LSt[T . sG dfIwlDdlG y]cfI d[PMoLe[Nn[ sG ylD rXs-d[Nn[ d[GpfD ofKdlxfCF[G xlD ;oIilG ;gfFLIV nlIwXV gXMaf d[aXi-efI g;ffg- d[hXu[ FX . sG kfg-gX m[bfIaf gfU afxfbLU dfb[G (nXjfU gfDklIV nfIu[T ;LSvlD)n[ d[TtLCB “tI;lIu[Ff d[Ttf;lGg[ gfxfIdf dfIu[gf d[Ttf;lGg[ FX . tLTtLblI tLDofOI rXTnLDbX (place) ofSnfblI ;LjfI rXTnLDbXwX cfglC ;LDaX xLSjf s[TtfDd[ jfxlnfIjf s[TtfDd[ gfnlsLhfg- s[TtfDd[ xfTyX ;fi-PL ;SdfM gfs-sf;lGg[ . x[De[Nn[ ;fi-PLblI ;SdfM s[u[vlC nfcfoL s[u[Fl gfDcfoL s[u[Fl x[Da[Nn[FS v[glC nfblIjf;[F[ gfDblIjfcfDef s[nCFl d[TtLcfI jfC .” 
 

5V sLhLt-plI

 

sG glIofD;fK “o[xfI ;[Mdf dLGwLD”af yfdlI x[KdX sLgLDdX t[OIifI jfCcf gL sKdX ylS_g[Tpl ofDglIjfC oLIdf/xfMdf tD;lG rXuLI ofDdX sG yfDdlInfD cfglC clS;f vfDa]s-V d[GpfD ofKdl cfSs]FlS d[aXs-v[ s[FCaf gl;fD rla[TtfI vXM;LIifI jfCcf . sF clS;f vfDa]s-V d[GpfD ofKdl kXi-df dLGwLDdlG c}GwfFlS y]df;fI kUdfIul xXk- . sF;fI cfDefC cfglC tfSy[af/oLdfxfC dLSdLFf d[TplIaf kfg-V v[bfCV k[DdLSv[bfC ju[Ff x[KdX g;fg- cfhXuLD nX . ofDdX ;fKrfF[cfI sTgf clS;f vfDa]s-V d[GpfD ofKdl d[aXs-v[af kfg-gX sLa]_sLa];fI kUdfIul klFL . sG kfg-gX cfNnXwfFlS cfTtlG ;[Svf cfTtlG clIn[S xft-n[GgfI ;[Ddf d[GpLSs[ jfC . sF cfglC ofSyLI ;LjfI ;lufI cfafi] kFlSkf clS;f vfDa]s-V d[GpfD ofKdl kXi-df dLGwLD cfuTtLD nX . cfglC ofSyLI;fxfCF[ tfbl tfbl tul nfDafc] ofIgld-dlG (nature) dfI ;]jf cfhXuLD nX . cfglC tLDefS;f_oLdfxfCF[ sG clS;fV ofKdlV yS;f_kL;f s[F[S sLaXi- rXuL;LFLaf tfhlaf v[bfC x[KdX g;fg- d[hXuL .


    sG glIofD;fK x[KdX cXd[Kd[Nn[ sG clS;fblI vfDa]s-V d[GpfDblI ofKdlV tfaLblI ;lInfi-V ;lTtfd] nLIn[i-V ;lSr]g-_yafV ;lIglofd-af gL koDoDaf ;SdfM;fxfC (प्राणीहरू) dfI tfu[Ff glIjfCmLdfn[ ;lu[Ff ofmLg-blI dfI gL kXFXs-dl_oDefdl dfI;l nfDaf gfjfrclt-/sLaXi- rXuL s[FCaf kfg-hfS/kfg-pLDeX (statement) cl;lS vXMcfb[T nX . 


ofDdX rclt-tfIdfn[ d[GpfD ofKdlxfC gfjfrclt- rXs-dfF[ nful ;lu[Ff ofmLg-blI dfI gL kXFXs-dl_oDefdl dfI;l sKdX clS;f vfDa]s-dX kfIPLb];L . v[G vLGplC dfI_clIPI;f;lF[ ylS;lu]s-kfcX ;fDdfOIn[V gl;lu]s-kfcX oLSkfn[ d[GpfD ofKdln[G gfjfrclt- rXuL . sF v[G gfjfrclt- x[KdX ;fi-PL ;SdfM s[KdX d[GpLStLG;l . sLgLDdX ;ldlSnf_kSdlSnf (देवानिगालो/निगालो) F[ vfKkLV ;fDbfIv[jf (डाँफे)_nlIbfIv[jf (मुनाल) kLF[ xlV jxlT gL sLbLnfD ofDalTpfC gL d[GpLdf;lF[ gfjfrclt- rXuL;l . v[KdX ;fi-uL ;SdfM s]MKd[Nn[ nfM;f . ofI;l v[G dgf;l s[bLSkf kXi- gL ;Le]_nfKm] d[DaXi-g[G x[Ss]af r[ofd-eX t[OclNn[ vLGplC dfI_clIPI;f;lF[ rclt-tfIdfgL tLD;[cf xfIjfdLcl gfs-t[;l FX . v[De[Nn[ rclt-tfId[Nn[ vLGplCclG v[G dgf;lF[ dfIu[FfV gfxfIdfV rd[G rXu[;l nCFlS d[TplIifI ofDdX sKdX kfIPLb];L . ylS;lu]s-kf x[KdX rclt-tfId[Nn[ cfKm] yXc] ;M]uLcfI m[bfIaf vfDa]s-dX kfIPLb];L . v[G c]ufI rclt-tfId[Nn[ ;fjf o[xfI kfIPLb];L . sLgLDdX rclt-tfId[Nn o[af_o[df ;M]uLcfI sG  vfDa]s-dX kfIPLb];LefI nCFlS kfIe]Caf tLDdfOIxfIxfCF[ d[aft-tL nX . 


    sG clS;fV ofKdlV ;lI;fV tfI;fS sG s[F[Sn[G sLaXi- kXi-df dLGwLDdlG cfglC s[F[S ylSxLD kXi-dfcfI ofDdX sXk-df gL ;LDdf ;LLSdfaXi- nX . x[Ss]FlS sG kfg-xfC cfglC yfs-gL s[bfMaf ofSyLI xlGhfC klTpLclG glFlSsfI xLC;lIdfaXi- d[Guq sG dLGwLDdlG s[F[S do[cfI k] . gi[s-_gi[s- sG dLGwLDFS d[G cfglC ;LjfIaf ;fSylDV ;fDoXV s[jfCaf o[_m[bfIaf s[F[S do[cfI k] . tfg-bl cfglC cfafi] xlDFS d[G dlIzfq d[g-g]af cfaXi- nX .   

7V o[s-;fK

sG glIofD;fKkf o[xfI ;[Mdf dLGwLDdlG ;fFlS ;fKnf ;fKkG x[KdX ;fKk];fKkX cfIPXM;LG . mf;fI cfPXM;LIuF ofFlS yXk[TtfI sG dLGwLDdlG d[DaXi-g[G . sG s[F[S ;fKtLIaf cfafIe]Caf m[bfIaf gfU afxfbLU dfb[G (nXjfU gfDklIV nfIu[T ;LSvlD)n[ d[TtLaf FX . ofDdX cfafIe]Caf aUd[S bFlI (nfIu[T ;LSvlD) s[oLIaf tLTtL nfSpldG sLdfU ofSyLI gL tLTtL kbd- afxfbLU ofIxfI;lnfD rla[T;lT kfg-xfC sG glIofD;fKkX ;fKtLIifI jfCcf . x[Ss] kXs-v[afNn[ dLSdLFf d[TplIaf kfg-FS ;fKtLIifI jfCcf .

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